Qgis Query Builder Operators



Open the list or document library for which you want to build a CAML query. build the expression graphically by expanding the Fields and Values and Operators lists,. Using the Query Builder. These are useful for making fast field extractors as arguments for map(), sorted(), itertools. The COLUMN FILTER and QUERY BUILDER are essential User Interfaces that provide limited subsets of the querying and filtering functionality of QGIS. Most of the time, a subquery is used when you know how to search for a value using a SELECT statement, but do not know the exact value in the database. The following provide examples of expressions for use in queries. Once you are happy with the results close. Am working on MVC4 application with SQL server database and AQB version is 2. For example, you can easily find out messages which were received in last week or marked as Red category with configuring criteria in the following screen shot. FetchXML Builder is used to create queries against CDS databases. The expressions can be evaluated either as boolean predicates (returning True or False) or as functions (returning a scalar value). The postgisQueryBuilder QGis plugin is aimed to to provide a friendly environment to perform spatial analysis in postgresql/postgis without having to deal with SQL code. Let’s see how to work with query parameters. I Googled here, but couldn't find any reference to today's date except in VBA. Lets discuss the most asked C#,. What if you want to query just particular rows from a table that satisfy a certain condition. For example, this query can be written as:. Not Operator Microsoft Access. Clear Search Saved search Time Remove; No saved searches were found. Let us consider an example showing use of multiple entry wildcard in query filter for choosing both wet wear and night wear. Class: Capabilities; Class: ColorrampFavoriteId. Welcome /r/gis is a community dedicated to everything GIS (Geographic Information Systems). Now you will see a smaller subset of the points selected. Such queries are a fundamental part of managing and analyzing GIS data. To enter a criterion for a particular field without displaying the field in the results of the query, include the field in the design grid, enter the criterion, and remove the check mark from its Show check box. Query Builder Statement Operators. Boolean operators allow you to apply Boolean logic to queries, requiring the presence or absence of specific terms or conditions in fields in order to match documents. The second argument is an operator, which can be any of the database's supported operators. shp layer from the QGIS sample data. To add connectors or other operators you can refer to the Examples link. Also, I would like to add dynamic operators to that query. Having multiple groups is fine, but when combined with operator or minimum_should_match, it can suffer from the same problem as most_fields or best_fields. 3) Prompted Query filters: For creating a prompted query filter, you have to select the Prompt operand in the definition of the query filter in Web Intelligence. Below is an excerpt from my udemy course about Spatial Analysis. …They can be shown as simple points or advanced symbols…such as a detailed fire hydrant symbol. In the "Query Builder" I can currently filter on value from the "Values List", but I'd like to be able to filter for multiple values at once. The query builder is different from the query we used in Step 5 above. Operators (SSIS Expression) 03/01/2017; 2 minutes to read +1; In this article. What query builder query should I use for this purpose?. I'm not going to go and make yet another dialog just for the labeling. Querying Data in Staged Files. Inspired by the top Query Builders available, like Laravel Query Builder, and Knex. QGIS plugins web portal. The following examples are meant to be typed out in the expression editor. This clause is important as only those records matching the where clause’s conditions are returned in the query results. Azure Cosmos DB has a new Community Page! Have a project or an event related to Azure Cosmos DB? Tell us about it on the community page and we'll help promote it!. Welcome to the Vermont Public Crash Data Query Tool! All crash reports submitted to the State of Vermont involving motorized vehicles on all public highways are available for querying through this tool. AlarmClock; BlockedNumberContract; BlockedNumberContract. A couple of threads on the Oracle Visual Builder Cloud Service forum asked about writing code in buttons in VBCS that compares values entered in a page to data in business objects and perform conditional navigation based on the values. This tool will help you build your CAML Queries. The QGIS Atlas is a true open source technique to generate hundreds of maps in minutes. If a value is entered into this input box, the query will return only the results that contain this value: The results of running the query with East Midlands as the parameter value. In fact, Query Builder allows a knowledgeable user (such as one that studies our guide) to peer into the mysterious under-workings of the BOXI repository object meta data. Double-click kec in the Fields list. Azure Cosmos DB is Microsoft’s globally-distributed, multi-model database service. Open QGIS Desktop. If you want to search for an operator as you would normal text, for example in a phrase such as "Gene and Joan," you must put the phrase in quotes. For example, you can easily find out messages which were received in last week or marked as Red category with configuring criteria in the following screen shot. CDS includes technologies we know as: - Microsoft Dynamics 365 Customer Engagement - Dynamics CRM - Common Data Service for Apps - XRM - PowerApps (Model Driven) - PowerApps (Canvas connected to D365 or CDS) - PowerBI (connected to D365 or CDS) The tool will assist in three major. QGIS is a bit shaky with the toolbox and modeler, mainly because the underlying tool scripts are a bit "iffy" sometimes. If we wanted to do some further analysis on this subset of data, we can make this selection persistent. I have already found a workaround. ps1 to search Microsoft. Built on top of Database Access Objects, query builder allows you to construct a SQL query in a programmatic and DBMS-agnostic way. The plugin allows a semi-automatic compilation of common postgis sql queries by the assisted insertion/selection of the needed parameters (tables and fields names, operators and postgis functions) Is also included postgres views support (with Materialize Directive, new from psql 9. (Query templates are useful on their own, as a way to store a query within your task menus so that you can use it across different projects. By using the data model you can form queries. The resultant layer will be a live, dynamic view of the query result, so any changes to the source layers will be automatically and immediately reflected in the virtual layer! The supported SQL dialect is SQLite with Spatialite functions. Here you'll find detailed descriptions of each field data type, query operators, and query macros. Structured Query Language (SQL) is a standard computer language for accessing and managing databases. Attendees; CalendarContract. Now it is showing like a anchor button i think. To do this, hold 'ctrl' and click the fields to be used. This section describes the operators the expression language provides and the operator precedence and associativity that the expression evaluator uses. Using KQL, you specify the search terms or property restrictions that are passed to the SharePoint search service. It is built using one or more boolean clauses, each clause with a typed occurrence. Oracle SQL Developer is a free graphical tool that enhances productivity and simplifies database development tasks. You may use the where method on a query builder instance to add where clauses to the query. 1 configuration). However, when I put it as an expression does not work anymore. Array slice operator is wonderful operator to extract selected items from Json. One method to select features in a layer is to select features using an attribute query:-To query a layer by its attribute data, Right click on the layer's name in the Layer Panel; Select Query from the short cut menu to open the Query Builder box. In the Free Text box, enter the terms that should appear in the article. familyName); SQL. First we'll run the same query on "León. The queries included in the set indicate what features display on the map or chart. This form is a fallback if Overpass Turbo doesn't work for you. About/Help window has cheat-sheet for CAML query syntax with examples. This query will select all documents in the inventory collection where: the price field value is not equal to 1. These plugins can also be installed directly from the QGIS Plugin Manager within the QGIS application. When you see two tables in the FROM clause, it just means that both tables will be evaluated in the WHERE clause (think of it more like a union than a join). Only a small subset of SQL syntax is supported. 1), which are query definitions that you can reuse as building blocks for other query steps. Plugin Builder plugin¶ There is a helpful QGIS plugin named Plugin Builder which creates all the necessary files and the boilerplate code for a plugin. Union All Query Syntax for SQL Server and Microsoft Access Union Query Overview The purpose of the SQL UNION and UNION ALL commands are to combine the results of two or more queries into a single result set consisting of all the rows belonging to all the queries in the union. I'm not going to go and make yet another dialog just for the labeling. In the Query Builder window use the following steps to build a query expression that will select islands in Lake Champlain that are between 5,000 and 6,000 acres (20,235,000 sq. Query expressions are used in ArcGIS to select a subset of features and table records. For example, if you have a regions layer with a TYPE_2 field, you could select only regions that are borough in the Provider specific filter expression box of the Query Builder. Query Builder Statement Operators. This is an empty table based on the schema. I’ve created the columns and am using expression builder to do this. Everyone once in a while you come across something that makes you say, “that is great, now why didn’t I think of that?”. Parameters. There are around 50 Standard Query Operators available in LINQ. Building label expressions. This query will select all documents in the inventory collection where: the price field value is not equal to 1. 18 QGIS Project. The COLUMN FILTER and QUERY BUILDER are essential User Interfaces that provide limited subsets of the querying and filtering functionality of QGIS. Click Save and then Run Query (cylinder icon with a plus symbol). Graphical Query Designer User Interface. If I rerun the query with Values from IN operator less than 500 then SPListItemCollection is not throwing an exception. Boolean Operators and Topological OVERLAY FUNCTIONS IN GIS Query -asking a question of the attribute data Standard Query Language (SQL) is used to query the data There are 4 basic statements used to get information from 2 (or more) datasets. For this reason, you do not need to provide an equality operator. Array slice operator in JsonPath. One method to select features in a layer is to select features using an attribute query:-To query a layer by its attribute data, Right click on the layer’s name in the Layer Panel; Select Query from the short cut menu to open the Query Builder box. Data can be exported for further analysis. However I am a noob with web mapping applications, but tying to learn. Learn how to use all its features to build powerful queries with JPA and Hibernate. "The Query Builder Guide is a must have for every BusinessObjects administrator if it is about 'know your system'. QGIS has some support for parsing of SQL-like expressions. For our query, we want to select features from the buffered places that intersect with the buffered river lines. It will help you to plot a species distribution exported from the Specify database into an Excel file onto a simple map of New Zealand with some bathymetry lines. An auto-incremented value will be used in place. Most of the time, you will only need to click the field, the operator, and the value to generate the proper syntax. QGIS is a little more discerning when it comes to writing your SQL queries than other desktop GIS I have used. Unsure which solution is best for your company? Find out which tool is better with a detailed comparison of sunbird-dcim & dbhawk-sql-query-builder. Customize the query. I am going to show you how to use the Update SQL Layer menu on QGIS. Now you will see a smaller subset of the points selected. Using the Enhanced Query Builder. The materials included will prepare trainers to conduct trainings with a variety of audiences and to cover common problems and pitfalls, and also provide trainers with the best methodologies. Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, securely and privately show content to your friends and family, or blog the photos and videos you take with a cameraphone. The COLUMN FILTER and QUERY BUILDER are essential User Interfaces that provide limited subsets of the querying and filtering functionality of QGIS. Lithnet Metaverse Query Builder. You can combine multiple queries using the set operators UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS. PyQGIS samples. The preferred operators are + (this term must be present) and -(this term must not be present). For help and examples on how to use the various commands click on the link of examples. How would you be able to list the plots that are in the forest boundary without using a 1-many relational database query? In QGIS, use the Vector menu, Research Tools, Select by Location tool:. Subqueries that return more than one row can only be used with multiple value operators such as the IN operator. Return to the main QGIS window. For example if I write the query below, using a Wildcard to find all Hospitals where the value ‘harley’ is within the Address field: This returns no records. Leveraging these advanced functions along with standard operators allows for some powerful field calculations. This is the value that is also presented. Your query now has the full expression listed in the Criteria field. First we'll run the same query on "León. In Liferay perspective Finder Query is simply finder methods which are written by developers. To add connectors or other operators you can refer to the Examples link. The more we share, the stronger and wider the QGIS community becomes. The postgisQueryBuilder QGis plugin is aimed to to provide a friendly environment to perform spatial analysis in postgresql/postgis without having to deal with SQL code. The first argument is the name of the column. Welcome to this step-by-step guide to create time-to animations in QGIS. The Fields, Values and Operators sections help you to construct the SQL-like query. In the following. In addition to the operators below, enterprise geodatabases support other capabilities. Spatial Query: This tool will use 2 shapefiles to select features and let you save the selection as a new shapefile. For this purpose, it has a specifically crafted query language. This method is useful when the final scale of the maps is irrelevant, or when the size of the atlas elements is similar, allowing one to use a fixed scale. We would like to thank the developers, documenters, testers and all the many folks out there who volunteer their time and effort (or fund people to do so). All other terms are optional. View all issues Improvements to Query Builder: algorithms extract by location or select by location no longer respect the. QGIS Window Expression constructor. and NOT operators. The “Fields” section contains fields from shapefile database, double-click on “id” here. The Definition Queries tab on the Feature Display Settings dialog box provides you with a way to determine which features appear on a map or chart. Learn how to query results using boolean logic. The query string commonly includes fields added to a base URL by a Web browser or other client application, for example as part of an HTML form. This is the result of the second query and shows all places from the dataset that are country capitals as well as have population greater than 1,000,000. activeLayer() search_query_builder = QgsSearchQueryBuilder(layer) search_query_builder. And here are some examples. A compound query consisting of multiple queries connected with Boolean AND or OR operators. Search by sender, subject, folder, date, and date range. This is to ensure the query uses only river features that we selected previously. hello, I use SSRS 2008 to build some reports from an OLAP source and I would like to use some advanced features of the Query Builder wizard. JPQL allows you to define database queries based on your entity model. The following categories of operators are supported in an expression: arithmetic, comparison, concatenation, logical or bitwise, and bit shift. We used the column filter to query the data, but the query builder gives you advanced functionality. In open source QGIS software, before version 1. In today’s lesson you’re going to learn how to filter query results using the WHERE clause. In ArcMap, add the 10m contour lines to the. This is the result of the second query and shows all places from the dataset that are country capitals as well as have population greater than 1,000,000. plate items available in classic phase 1 with melee hit. Querying Metadata for Staged Files. Quantum GIS (QGIS) Tutorials In the search query builder, type in the query as SOV_A3='USA You can also click on the field value and various operators to. The operator module also defines tools for generalized attribute and item lookups. Query Structure. If a SQL statement contains multiple set operators, then Oracle Database evaluates them from the left to right unless parentheses explicitly specify another order. Use Action Codes and Legislative Subject Terms for more precise results. The SQL AND condition and OR condition can be combined to test for multiple conditions in a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement. Triggers an event on the builder container and returns the modified value. Therefore if you need to use unbuffered query don't use this function with the aforementioned versions but you mysqli_real_query() and mysqli_use_result(). The Fields, Values and Operators sections help. See Also Query. The objectives of today’s lesson are to: Learn about various condition types, such as Equality, Range, and Membership. About SQL Operators. The results are merged in order of the items in the list. Good news everyone! QGIS now has a native MS SQL 2008 provider. To use an existing query as the basis for a new query, it is necessary to ____ the query before designing the new query. If you are using Flexfields, bind variables, or other special processing in your query, edit the SQL returned by the Query Builder to include the required statements. elasticsearch. Type of Subqueries. On the Data tab, in the Get External Data group, click From Other Sources. QGIS: Getting Started October 16, 2015 November 16, 2015 Elvira In this tutorial, we will learn some basics of using QGIS, including getting familiar with the QGIS interface, adding vector layers and manipulating attributes. Once the query is complete, you will see a new section named Selected features. The query string commonly includes fields added to a base URL by a Web browser or other client application, for example as part of an HTML form. Steps for creating Query: Below description shows list of task required to be done for defining new query in Teamcenter through Query Builder. We have all done it. However, lets say you wanted to find all incidents where the priority field is greater than 1. A test function returns the number of features that will be returned. A query-expression with set operators is evaluated as follows. It is built using one or more boolean clauses, each clause with a typed occurrence. A test function returns the number of features that will be returned. It also takes an optionnal object of behavioral options similar to the plugin's options. We are finding that when an Administrator logs in and uses the Query Builder mentioned in this post All users are returned as expected. In this article we will discuss how to install QField on a mobile device and how to install and work on a QGis project. Once you have set up the query builder, close the nyzd properties dialog box. In Elasticsearch, query string queries are their own breed of query - loads of functionality for full text search rolled into one sweet little package. This form is a fallback if Overpass Turbo doesn't work for you. However, you can define multiple queries for a single app, and data layers can be from multiple sources. utils import iface layer = iface. NET components provide your application with a powerful and easy-to-use interface for visual query building. …In the data shaped water folder, inside your exercise files,…drag and drop. For this purpose, it has a specifically crafted query language. Search Builder Quick Reference Guide SEARCHING BY FREE TEXT 1. Array slice operator in JsonPath. where generally takes an object from attribute:value pairs, where value can be primitives for equality matches or keyed objects for other operators. This allows you to refine the results returned in a query using the WHERE clause. Step 3 – Joining the data. …Let's try points out now inside of QGIS. Using the Query Builder. Right click the CENSUS2010TOWNS_POLY layer and select Properties. If I rerun the query with Values from IN operator less than 500 then SPListItemCollection is not throwing an exception. gui import QgsQueryBuilder from qgis. The Query Optimizer assigns these values during parsing and they serve only as a comparative tool to aid in determining where the costs of a given operation lie. Separating the operator and the input value for the evaluation, means any filter range can accept a single value, between values and any valid operator. 1 configuration). Use an easy side-by-side layout to quickly compare their features, pricing and integrations. Clicking the indicator's icon brings up query builder. In open source QGIS software, before version 1. When you add a conditional statement, the default operator and other available operators depend on the field type. The Not command is one of the most commonly used functions in SQL queries. Now, let's explore this example further will some data. Query builder is available for Cloud SQL datasources. You can also make use of QGIS finer grained querying power, using the EXPRESSION tool user interface, or by running your own custom Python scripts with the same operators and functions. Ruby Test::Unit::Assertions Functions. To correct ORA-00902, use a valid relational operator like: =!= ^= <> > < >= <=. The UNION operator removes duplicates. elasticsearch. This is a very simple step by step guide created by a beginner using QGIS for a beginner using QGIS. npm install angular2-query-builder. I Googled here, but couldn't find any reference to today's date except in VBA. Widgets This demo shows how to integrate widgets into QueryBuilder rules. In all there are total 6 logical operators in MS Access as follows: AND OperatorOperation involving AND operator is known as 'Logical Conjunction'. Triggers an event on the builder container and returns the modified value. The full "NAME" in the desired row is 'Picuris Indian Reservation'. It's a simplified analog of the MySQL WHERE clause, which supports filtering on related models and makes queries against null easier. 3), aimed to allow dynamic manipulation of spatial…. SqlKata Query Builder is a powerful Sql Query Builder written in C#. Quick Filters. I have a table that I use to store a couple of Report Filters. Bug report #2907: QGIS crashes with on the fly reprojection enabled, project in "google mercator" and vector in wgs84: Bug report #2910: qgis crashes when opening a project saved with deleted google layers: Bug report #2911: Enable the query builder for view that don't have unique id. A couple of threads on the Oracle Visual Builder Cloud Service forum asked about writing code in buttons in VBCS that compares values entered in a page to data in business objects and perform conditional navigation based on the values. The (very useful) query builder for PostGIS layers does no longer show operators and examples. SharePoint Online CAML Query in PowerShell: The "IN" Operator The "In" operator is a replacement for multiple "OR" conditions. The compiler would not be able to help in this case. And we all thought it was the best -and only- way of doing it. Figure Attributes 2:. Boolean Operators and Topological OVERLAY FUNCTIONS IN GIS Query -asking a question of the attribute data Standard Query Language (SQL) is used to query the data There are 4 basic statements used to get information from 2 (or more) datasets. Well organized and easy to understand Web building tutorials with lots of examples of how to use HTML, CSS, JavaScript, SQL, PHP, Python, Bootstrap, Java and XML. To fix this in QGIS, users have 4 options: Query Builder: This will not create a new shapefile. APPLIES TO: SQL Server, including on Linux Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Data Warehouse Parallel Data Warehouse. Access 2007 - Intermediate Page 1 INTRODUCTION This training guide will acquaint you with the intermediate functions of Microsoft Access 2007. Hi Clint, The "simple" solution is to build a syntax search. Therefore if you need to use unbuffered query don't use this function with the aforementioned versions but you mysqli_real_query() and mysqli_use_result(). Hong Tham Nguyen. It also takes an optionnal object of behavioral options similar to the plugin's options. Note: This topic was updated for 9. 5 Operators. (MongoDB preferable). I'm trying to create some custom reports for the first time using the SQL 2012 query designer. We would like to load the cambridge_coffee. Query Builder for layers. Therefore if you need to use unbuffered query don't use this function with the aforementioned versions but you mysqli_real_query() and mysqli_use_result(). Skyvia Query is a tool that allows both experts and novice users to get the necessary data from any of the supported cloud applications and databases. AEM query builder is a tool/framework developed by adobe for writing simple and efficient queries in aem. QGIS: Getting Started October 16, 2015 November 16, 2015 Elvira In this tutorial, we will learn some basics of using QGIS, including getting familiar with the QGIS interface, adding vector layers and manipulating attributes. That's all the tutorial how to perform spatial query in QGIS 3. New User friendly composer for Postgis SQL query. Ok the title is a bit of a lie. It uses the Coveo Machine Learning service to pick key keywords from the text and add them to the basic expression. The Not function can be used anywhere you are using a comparison operator such as = (equals), < (less than), > (greater than), Exists, and the In operator. Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, securely and privately show content to your friends and family, or blog the photos and videos you take with a cameraphone. Now, this is possible with QGis by using the "virtual layers". Query builder. This query now contains all of the data you need to be able to map your data. You do need to have some programming skills, but the documentation of Business Objects is quite good. QGIS is a bit shaky with the toolbox and modeler, mainly because the underlying tool scripts are a bit "iffy" sometimes. How to query data in QGIS to find certain information and select features. However, in the latest version of Power BI Desktop, these do not seem to be working. BI Query lets you extract the information you need using a data model—a graphical representation of the database. BI Query is a query and reporting tool that provides a comprehensive solution for accessing, analyzing, and presenting data stored in enterprise databases. Better date and time support in QGIS expressions and styles Posted on June 30, 2012 July 1, 2012 by Nathan Version note: This will only work in the latest dev build of QGIS - not in 1. Query Syntax ¶. BusinessObjects Query builder – Best practices & Usability. Click the = button (under Operators). Query as layer does not need a unique integer column anymore. With the Data Query object is selected on the custom page, click the Custom button in the Properties pane. See Also Query. 6 Pgs 516 kB. Some classes from QGIS 3D have been made available for Python developers. Query Builder Statement Operators. select Business_type = “bank” AND City NOT “London” would return all the banks that do not have a London address. I know SQL has its BETWEEN operator, Query Search. A quick overview of the three core Boolean search operators and Boolean query modifiers: AND, OR, NOT, Asterisk, Parentheses, Quotation Marks. Union All Query Syntax for SQL Server and Microsoft Access Union Query Overview The purpose of the SQL UNION and UNION ALL commands are to combine the results of two or more queries into a single result set consisting of all the rows belonging to all the queries in the union. You use criteria in a query to limit the records that you work with. For example, you can do things like this: Outlook QueryBuilder Example. You may use the where method on a query builder instance to add where clauses to the query. 27 Differences Between ArcGIS and QGIS - The Most Epic GIS Software Battle in GIS History using ArcGIS Model Builder. Business Explorer – Functions in a Query Designer. In the field calculator, advanced mathematical, geometry, string, date and time, type conversion, and conditional functions are available for use. A query that matches documents matching boolean combinations of other queries. SQL Subquery. Let's run a test query using the SEARCH QUERY BUILDER. By using the data model you can form queries. Indeed ranks Job Ads based on a combination of employer bids and relevance, such as your search terms and other activity on Indeed. Expression-based Labeling for QGIS. QGIS is not only a desktop application. You will not be able to see the home screen for the SAP BEx Query Designer. In real world the performance of a website depends on its back end queries, which makes it really important to understand how query works in aem and how to write efficient queries. Each query requires a view (profile) ID, a start and end date, and at least one metric. In open source QGIS software, before version 1. I'm not going to go and make yet another dialog just for the labeling. Load the Spatial Query plugin in the Plugin Manager (see The Plugins Dialog) and click on the Spatial Query icon, which appears in the QGIS toolbar menu. DNS-constructed Seedlist mongodb+srv, Change Streams, Sessions, JSON Schema , New Query Operators and New Aggregation Stages and Operators. In addition to the operators below, enterprise geodatabases support other capabilities. 1 configuration). items with dagger weapon skill sorted by skill value. You query the Core Reporting API for Google Analytics report data. 2, they can produce different execution plans, and hence, different execution speeds:. This query is working properly if I write it directly in query editor. Using Search Builder (Menu Search/ Search Builder), you can create narrow searches by combining keywords. We would like to query for trips which starts near (1km) location "[long1,lat1]" around the time t (+-10 minutes) and ends at [long2,lat2]. The UNION operator removes duplicates. You can do A LOT with SQL queries and here I only show you where to. Search Query Builder and Query Builder both enable increasingly sophisticated searches with the ability to. build the expression graphically by expanding the Fields and Values and Operators lists,. I seem to have all my matches fine, but in the GUI it is automatically adding the 'AND' operator when adding multiple filters. APPLIES TO: SQL Server, including on Linux Azure SQL Database Azure SQL Data Warehouse Parallel Data Warehouse.